Graphite Ingot

See More About:    Graphite Ingot        Graphite Ingot        

top ratedBuy from the best here at Silver Rounds. We hand select each of our listings to ensure quality service to our customers. Our hand select listings ensure great service and fast shipping especially when you buy from our Top Rated sellers.
These sellers:

  • Consistently receive highest buyer"s rating
  • Ship items quickly
  • Have earned a track record of excellent service on eBay

Just look for the Top Rated badge for these select sellers on this page Graphite Ingot.

See More About:    Graphite Ingot        Graphite Ingot        
Make Your Own Precious Metal Graphite Ingot Molds.

Nothing found for Wp-content Plugins PhpBay Forms Form Page Header Php

Not Found, Error 404

The page you are looking for no longer exists. Perhaps you can return back to the Silver Rounds homepage and see if you can find what you are looking for. Or, you can also try finding it by typing in your search keyword/s in our search box below.

Nothing found for Wp-content Plugins PhpBay Templates Phpbay Error

Not Found, Error 404

The page you are looking for no longer exists. Perhaps you can return back to the Silver Rounds homepage and see if you can find what you are looking for. Or, you can also try finding it by typing in your search keyword/s in our search box below.


GRAPHITE CRUCIBLE CUP BASE MELTING LEAD BULLET SINKER FISHING ALLOY METAL INGOT
graphite crucible cup base melting lead bullet sinker fishing alloy metal ingot
$32.99
quality
GRAPHITE CRUCIBLE FOR MELTING LEAD BULLET SINKER FISHING TOYS ALLOY METAL INGOTS
graphite crucible for melting lead bullet sinker fishing toys alloy metal ingots
$30.99
quality
5 PIECE LOT 4 oz GRAPHITE CRUCIBLE R9 FURNACE MELTING GOLD SILVER DUST INGOTS
5 piece lot 4 oz graphite crucible r9 furnace melting gold silver dust ingots
$72.50
quality
5 PIECE LOT 10 oz GRAPHITE CRUCIBLE MINI CUP BASE MELTING GOLD SILVER DUST INGOT
5 piece lot 10 oz graphite crucible mini cup base melting gold silver dust ingot
$87.50
quality
10 PIECE LOT 10 oz GRAPHITE CRUCIBLE MINI CUP BASE MELTING GOLD SILVER INGOT
10 piece lot 10 oz graphite crucible mini cup base melting gold silver ingot
$165.00
quality
10 PIECE LOT 10 oz GRAPHITE CRUCIBLE R9 FURNACE MELTING GOLD SILVER DUST INGOTS
10 piece lot 10 oz graphite crucible r9 furnace melting gold silver dust ingots
$155.00
quality
10 PIECE LOT 4 oz GRAPHITE CRUCIBLE R9 FURNACE MELTING GOLD SILVER DUST INGOTS
10 piece lot 4 oz graphite crucible r9 furnace melting gold silver dust ingots
$140.00
quality
5 PIECE LOT 10 oz GRAPHITE CRUCIBLE R9 FURNACE MELTING GOLD SILVER DUST INGOTS
5 piece lot 10 oz graphite crucible r9 furnace melting gold silver dust ingots
$82.50
quality
Graphite Crucible Ingot Mold Lot for Melting Gold  Silver Refining Casting
graphite crucible ingot mold lot for melting gold silver refining casting
$29.95
quality
NEW GRAPHITE CRUCIBLE TONGS HEAVY DUTY STAINLESS STEEL MELTING GOLD SILVER INGOT
new graphite crucible tongs heavy duty stainless steel melting gold silver ingot
$28.99
quality
1000 Troy oz Rectangle Gold Graphite Ingot Mold Melting Casting Refining Scrap
1000 troy oz rectangle gold graphite ingot mold melting casting refining scrap
$659.35
quality
250 Troy oz Rectangle Gold Graphite Ingot Mold Melting Casting Refining Scrap
250 troy oz rectangle gold graphite ingot mold melting casting refining scrap
$208.85
quality
200 Troy oz Rectangle Gold Graphite Ingot Mold Melting Casting Refining Metal
200 troy oz rectangle gold graphite ingot mold melting casting refining metal
$142.45
quality
100 oz Troy Ounce Silver Rect Graphite Ingot Mold Casting Melting Refining Metal
100 oz troy ounce silver rect graphite ingot mold casting melting refining metal
$104.10
quality
200 oz Troy Ounce Silver Rect Graphite Ingot Mold Casting Melting Refining Metal
200 oz troy ounce silver rect graphite ingot mold casting melting refining metal
$152.45
quality
1 Kilo KG 32 Toz Silver Rect Graphite Ingot Mold Casting Melting Refining Metal
1 kilo kg 32 toz silver rect graphite ingot mold casting melting refining metal
$48.30
quality
25 oz Troy Ounce Silver Rect Graphite Ingot Mold Casting Melting Refining Metal
25 oz troy ounce silver rect graphite ingot mold casting melting refining metal
$44.00
quality
20 oz Troy Ounce Silver Rect Graphite Ingot Mold Casting Melting Refining Metal
20 oz troy ounce silver rect graphite ingot mold casting melting refining metal
$39.80
quality
10 oz Troy Ounce Silver Rect Graphite Ingot Mold Casting Melting Refining Metal
10 oz troy ounce silver rect graphite ingot mold casting melting refining metal
$36.95
quality
5 oz Troy Ounce Silver Rect Graphite Ingot Mold Casting Melting Refining Metal
5 oz troy ounce silver rect graphite ingot mold casting melting refining metal
$33.80
quality
3 4 oz Troy Ounce Silver Rect Graphite Ingot Mold Casting Melting Refining Metal
3 4 oz troy ounce silver rect graphite ingot mold casting melting refining metal
$22.75
quality
half oz Troy Ounce Silver Rect Graphite Ingot Mold Casting Melting Refining Metal
half oz troy ounce silver rect graphite ingot mold casting melting refining metal
$22.75
quality
10 Gram Silver Graphite Rect Ingot Mold Casting Melting Refining Metal Sterling
10 gram silver graphite rect ingot mold casting melting refining metal sterling
$22.75
quality
5 Gram Silver Graphite Rect Ingot Mold Casting Melting Refining Metal Sterling
5 gram silver graphite rect ingot mold casting melting refining metal sterling
$22.75
quality

Didn"t find what your looking for? Search our real time inventory below...

Graphite Ingot

Titanium - caustic soda solid - caustic soda flakes Manufacturer by xiumi

Characteristics
Physical
A metallic element, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio. It is a strong metal with low density that is quite ductile (especially in an oxygen-free environment), lustrous, and metallic-white in color. The relatively high melting point (over 1,649 C or 3,000 F) makes it useful as a refractory metal.
Commercial (99.2% pure) grades of titanium have ultimate tensile strength of about 63,000 psi (434 MPa), equal to that of common, low-grade steel alloys, but are 45% lighter. Titanium is 60% more dense than aluminium, but more than twice as strong as the most commonly used 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Certain titanium alloys (e.g., Beta C) achieve tensile strengths of over 200,000 psi (1,400 MPa). However, titanium loses strength when heated above 430 C (806 F).
It is fairly hard although not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel, non-magnetic and a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Machining requires precautions, as the material will soften and gall if sharp tools and proper cooling methods are not used. Like those made from steel, titanium structures have a fatigue limit which guarantees longevity in some applications.
The metal is a dimorphic allotrope with the hexagonal alpha form changing into the body-centered cubic (lattice) form at 882 C (1,620 F). The specific heat of the alpha form increases dramatically as it is heated to this transition temperature but then falls and remains fairly constant for the form regardless of temperature. Similar to zirconium and hafnium, an additional omega phase exists, which is thermodynamically stable at high pressures, but is metastable at ambient pressures. This phase is usually hexagonal (ideal) or trigonal (distorted) and can be viewed as being due to a soft longitudinal acoustic phonon of the phase causing collapse of (111) planes of atoms.
Chemical
The most noted chemical property of titanium is its excellent resistance to corrosion; it is almost as resistant as platinum, capable of withstanding attack by acids, moist chlorine in water but is soluble in concentrated acids.
While the following Pourbaix diagram shows that titanium is thermodynamically a very reactive metal, it is slow to react with water and air.
The Pourbaix diagram for titanium in pure water, perchloric acid or sodium hydroxide
This metal forms a passive and protective oxide coating (leading to increased corrosion-resistance) when exposed to elevated temperatures in air, but at room temperatures it resists tarnishing. When it first forms, this protective layer is only 12 nm thick but continues to slowly grow; reaching a thickness of 25 nm in four years.
Titanium burns in air when heated to 1,200 C (2,190 F) and in pure oxygen when heated to 610 C (1,130 F) or higher, forming titanium dioxide. As a result, the metal cannot be melted in open air as it burns before the melting point is reached, so melting is only possible in an inert atmosphere or in a vacuum. It is also one of the few elements that burns in pure nitrogen gas (it burns at 800 C or 1,472 F and forms titanium nitride, which causes embrittlement). Titanium is resistant to dilute sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, along with chlorine gas, chloride solutions, and most organic acids. It is paramagnetic (weakly attracted to magnets) and has fairly low electrical and thermal conductivity.
Experiments have shown that natural titanium becomes radioactive after it is bombarded with deuterons, emitting mainly positrons and hard gamma rays. When it is red hot the metal combines with oxygen, and when it reaches 550 C (1,022 F) it combines with chlorine. It also reacts with the other halogens and absorbs hydrogen.
Compounds
TiN coated drill bit
The +4 oxidation state dominates in titanium chemistry, but compounds in the +3 oxidation state are also common. Because of this high oxidation state, many titanium compounds have a high degree of covalent bonding.
Star sapphires and rubies get their asterism from the titanium dioxide impurities present in them. Titanates are compounds made with titanium dioxide. Barium titanate has piezoelectric properties, thus making it possible to use it as a transducer in the interconversion of sound and electricity. Esters of titanium are formed by the reaction of alcohols and titanium tetrachloride and are used to waterproof fabrics.
Titanium nitride (TiN), having a hardness equivalent to sapphire and carborundum (9.0 on the Mohs Scale), is often used to coat cutting tools, such as drill bits. It also finds use as a gold-colored decorative finish, and as a barrier metal in semiconductor fabrication.
Titanium tetrachloride (titanium(IV) chloride, TiCl4, sometimes called "Tickle") is a colorless liquid which is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of titanium dioxide for paint. It is widely used in organic chemistry as a Lewis acid, for example in the Mukaiyama aldol condensation. Titanium also forms a lower chloride, titanium(III) chloride (TiCl3), which is used as a reducing agent.
Titanocene dichloride is an important catalyst for carbon-carbon bond formation. Titanium isopropoxide is used for Sharpless epoxidation. Other compounds include titanium bromide (used in metallurgy, superalloys, and high-temperature electrical wiring and coatings) and titanium carbide (found in high-temperature cutting tools and coatings).
Occurrence
2003 production of titanium dioxide, in thousands of tonnes.
Producer
Production
 % of total
 Australia
1291.0
30.6
 South Africa
850.0
20.1
 Canada
767.0
18.2
 Norway
382.9
9.1
 Ukraine
357.0
8.5
Other countries
573.1
13.6
Total world
4221.0
100.0
Because of rounding, values do not sum to 100%.
Titanium is always bonded to other elements in nature. It is the ninth-most abundant element in the Earth's crust (0.63% by mass) and the seventh-most abundant metal. It is present in most igneous rocks and in sediments derived from them (as well as in living things and natural bodies of water). Of the 801 types of igneous rocks analyzed by the United States Geological Survey, 784 contained titanium. Its proportion in soils is approximately 0.5 to 1.5%.
It is widely distributed and occurs primarily in the minerals anatase, brookite, ilmenite, perovskite, rutile, titanite (sphene), as well in many iron ores. Of these minerals, only rutile and ilmenite have any economic importance, yet even they are difficult to find in high concentrations. Significant titanium-bearing ilmenite deposits exist in western Australia, Canada, China, India, New Zealand, Norway, and Ukraine. Large quantities of rutile are also mined in North America and South Africa and help contribute to the annual production of 90,000 tonnes of the metal and 4.3 million tonnes of titanium dioxide. Total reserves of titanium are estimated to exceed 600 million tonnes.
Titanium is contained in meteorites and has been detected in the sun and in M-type stars; the coolest type of star with a surface temperature of 3,200 C (5,790 F). Rocks brought back from the moon during the Apollo 17 mission are composed of 12.1% TiO2. It is also found in coal ash, plants, and even the human body.
Isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of titanium
Naturally occurring titanium is composed of 5 stable isotopes: 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, and 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8% natural abundance). Eleven radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 44Ti with a half-life of 63 years, 45Ti with a half-life of 184.8 minutes, 51Ti with a half-life of 5.76 minutes, and 52Ti with a half-life of 1.7 minutes. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 33 seconds and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than half a second.
The isotopes of titanium range in atomic weight from 39.99 u (40Ti) to 57.966 u (58Ti). The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 48Ti, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay products before 48Ti are element 21 (scandium) isotopes and the primary products after are element 23 (vanadium) isotopes.
History
Martin Heinrich Klaproth named titanium for the Titans of Greek mythology.
Titanium was discovered included in a mineral in Cornwall, England, in 1791 by amateur geologist and pastor William Gregor, then vicar of Creed parish. He recognized the presence of a new element in ilmenite when he found black sand by a stream in the nearby parish of Manaccan and noticed the sand was attracted by a magnet. Analysis of the sand determined the presence of two metal oxides; iron oxide (explaining the attraction to the magnet) and 45.25% of a white metallic oxide he could not identify. Gregor, realizing that the unidentified oxide contained a metal that did not match the properties of any known element, reported his findings to the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall and in the German science journal Crell's Annalen.
Around the same time, Franz-Joseph Mller von Reichenstein produced a similar substance, but could not identify it. The oxide was independently rediscovered in 1795 by German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth in rutile from Hungary. Klaproth found that it contained a new element and named it for the Titans of Greek mythology. After hearing about Gregor's earlier discovery, he obtained a sample of manaccanite and confirmed it contained titanium.
The processes required to extract titanium from its various ores are laborious and costly; it is not possible to reduce in the normal manner, by heating in the presence of carbon, because that produces titanium carbide. Pure metallic titanium (99.9%) was first prepared in 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute by heating TiCl4 with sodium at 700800 C in the Hunter process. Titanium metal was not used outside the laboratory until 1932 when William Justin Kroll proved that it could be produced by reducing titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) with calcium. Eight years later he refined this process by using magnesium and even sodium in what became known as the Kroll process. Although research continues into more efficient and cheaper processes (e.g., FFC Cambridge), the Kroll process is still used for commercial production.
A titanium crystal bar made by the iodide process
Titanium of very high purity was made in small quantities when Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered the iodide, or crystal bar, process in 1925, by reacting with iodine and decomposing the formed vapors over a hot filament to pure metal.
In the 1950s and 1960s the Soviet Union pioneered the use of titanium in military and submarine applications (Alfa Class and Mike Class) as part of programs related to the Cold War. Starting in the early 1950s, titanium began to be used extensively for military aviation purposes, particularly in high-performance jets, starting with aircraft such as the F100 Super Sabre and Lockheed A-12.
In the USA, the Department of Defense realized the strategic importance of the metal and supported early efforts of commercialization. Throughout the period of the Cold War, titanium was considered a Strategic Material by the U.S. government, and a large stockpile of titanium sponge was maintained by the Defense National Stockpile Center, which was finally depleted in 2005. Today, the world's largest producer, Russian-based VSMPO-Avisma, is estimated to account for about 29% of the world market share.
In 2006, the U.S. Defense Agency awarded $5.7 million to a two-company consortium to develop a new process for making titanium metal powder. Under heat and pressure, the powder can be used to create strong, lightweight items ranging from armor plating to components for the aerospace, transportation, and chemical processing industries.
Production and fabrication
Titanium (mineral concentrate)
The processing of titanium metal occurs in 4 major steps: reduction of titanium ore into "sponge", a porous form; melting of sponge, or sponge plus a master alloy to form an ingot; primary fabrication, where an ingot is converted into general mill products such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, strip, and tube; and secondary fabrication of finished shapes from mill products.
Because the metal reacts with oxygen at high temperatures it cannot be produced by reduction of its dioxide. Titanium metal is therefore produced commercially by the Kroll process, a complex and expensive batch process. (The relatively high market value of titanium is mainly due to its processing, which sacrifices another expensive metal, magnesium.) In the Kroll process, the oxide is first converted to chloride through carbochlorination, whereby chlorine gas is passed over red-hot rutile or ilmenite in the presence of carbon to make TiCl4. This is condensed and purified by fractional distillation and then reduced with 800 C molten magnesium in an argon atmosphere.
A more recently developed method, the FFC Cambridge process, may eventually replace the Kroll process. This method uses titanium dioxide powder (which is a refined form of rutile) as feedstock to make the end product which is either a powder or sponge. If mixed oxide powders are used, the product is an alloy manufactured at a much lower cost than the conventional multi-step melting process. The FFC Cambridge process may render titanium a less rare and expensive material for the aerospace industry and the luxury goods market, and could be seen in many products currently manufactured using aluminium and specialist grades of steel.
Common titanium alloys are made by reduction. For example, cuprotitanium (rutile with copper added is reduced), ferrocarbon titanium (ilmenite reduced with coke in an electric furnace), and manganotitanium (rutile with manganese or manganese oxides) are reduced.
2 FeTiO3 + 7 Cl2 + 6 C 2 TiCl4 + 2 FeCl3 + 6 CO (900 C)
TiCl4 + 2 Mg 2 MgCl2 + Ti (1100 C)
About 50 grades of titanium and titanium alloys are designated and currently used, although only a couple of dozen are readily available commercially. The ASTM International recognizes 31 Grades of titanium metal and alloys, of which Grades 1 through 4 are commercially pure (unalloyed). These four are distinguished by their varying degrees of tensile strength, as a function of oxygen content, with Grade 1 being the most ductile (lowest tensile strength with an oxygen content of 0.18%), and Grade 4 the least (highest tensile strength with an oxygen content of 0.40%). The remaining grades are alloys, each designed for specific purposes, be it ductility, strength, hardness, electrical resistivity, creep resistance, resistance to corrosion from specific media, or a combination thereof.
The grades covered by ASTM and other alloys are also produced to meet Aerospace and Military specifications (SAE-AMS, MIL-T), ISO standards, and country-specific specifications, as well as proprietary end-user specifications for aerospace, military, medical, and industrial applications.
In terms of fabrication, all welding of titanium must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon or helium in order to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases such as oxygen, nitrogen, or hydrogen. Contamination will cause a variety of conditions, such as embrittlement, which will reduce the integrity of the assembly welds and lead to joint failure. Commercially pure flat product (sheet, plate) can be formed readily, but processing must take into account the fact that the metal has a "memory" and tends to spring back. This is especially true of certain high-strength alloys. The metal can be machined using the same equipment and via the same processes as stainless steel.
Applications
Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element (ferro-titanium) to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content. Titanium is often alloyed with aluminium (to refine grain size), vanadium, copper (to harden), iron, manganese, molybdenum, and with other metals. Applications for titanium mill products (sheet, plate, bar, wire, forgings, castings) can be found in industrial, aerospace, recreational, and emerging markets. Powdered titanium is used in pyrotechnics as a source of bright-burning particles.
Pigments, additives and coatings
Titanium dioxide is the most commonly used compound of titanium
About 95% of titanium ore extracted from the Earth is destined for refinement into titanium dioxide (TiO2), an intensely white permanent pigment used in paints, paper, toothpaste, and plastics. It is also used in cement, in gemstones, as an optical opacifier in paper, and a strengthening agent in graphite composite fishing rods and golf clubs.
TiO2 powder is chemically inert, resists fading in sunlight, and is very opaque: this allows it to impart a pure and brilliant white color to the brown or gray chemicals that form the majority of household plastics. In nature, this compound is found in the minerals anatase, brookite, and rutile. Paint made with titanium dioxide does well in severe temperatures, is somewhat self-cleaning, and stands up to marine environments. Pure titanium dioxide has a very high index of refraction and an optical dispersion higher than diamond. In addition to being a very important pigment, titanium dioxide is also used in sunscreens due to its ability to protect skin by itself.
Recently, it has been put to use in air purifiers (as a filter coating), or in film used to coat windows on buildings which when exposed to UV light (either solar or man-made) and moisture in the air produces reactive redox species like hydroxyl radicals that can purify the air or keep window surfaces clean.
Aerospace and marine
Due to their high tensile strength to density ratio, high corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance, high crack resistance, and ability to withstand moderately high temperatures without creeping, titanium alloys are used in aircraft, armor plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles. For these applications titanium alloyed with aluminium, vanadium, and other elements is used for a variety of components including critical structural parts, fire walls, landing gear, exhaust ducts (helicopters), and hydraulic systems. In fact, about two thirds of all titanium metal produced is used in aircraft engines and frames. The SR-71 "Blackbird" was one of the first aircraft to make extensive use of titanium within its structure, paving the way for its use in modern military and commercial aircraft. An estimated 59 metric tons (130,000 pounds) are used in the Boeing 777, 45 in the Boeing 747, 18 in the Boeing 737, 32 in the Airbus A340, 18 in the Airbus A330, and 12 in the Airbus A320. The Airbus A380 may use 146 metric tons, including about 26 tons in the engines. In engine applications, titanium is used for rotors, compressor blades, hydraulic system components, and nacelles. The titanium 6AL-4V alloy accounts for almost 50% of all alloys used in aircraft applications.
Due to its high corrosion resistance to sea water, titanium is used to make propeller shafts and rigging and in the heat exchangers of desalination plants; in heater-chillers for salt water aquariums, fishing line and leader, and for divers' knives. Titanium is used to manufacture the housings and other components of ocean-deployed surveillance and monitoring devices for scientific and military use. The former Soviet Union developed techniques for making submarines lar

I am an expert from causticsodasupplier.com, while we provides the quality product, such as caustic soda solid , caustic soda flakes Manufacturer, ,and more.

Article Source: http://www.earticlesonline.com/Article/Titanium---caustic-soda-solid----caustic-soda-flakes-Manufacturer/914978

Here"s a list of other products on Silver Rounds, come check these out:

See More About:    Graphite Ingot        Graphite Ingot        

Other Items People View After These Listings About